How A Rug Is Made: The Complete Guide

How To Clean A Shag Rug

How A Rug Is Made: The Complete Guide

This is Rugs For Your Home Guide On How A Rug Is Made.

How a rug is made is often mentioned in a description of a piece. But how many people know what that means? The rug weaving process is a skilled art form that has been around for thousands of years. So understandably, the product types are complex and wildly different.

We’ve brought you a short guide to explain how a rug is made and the main processes used. Rugs can be divided into five main types of weaving: hand-knotted, hand-tufted, hand-hooked, flatweave and machine-made.

To get your head around rug production, have a read of our breakdown of the things you need to know about how a rug is made.


Hand-knotted rugs can cost anywhere from a few hundred pounds to several hundred thousand pounds. It is the most time-consuming and expensive method of making a rug. The origins of this rug-weaving art can be traced back more than 2,000 years. These rugs take months or even years to weave.

In order to create a hand-knotted rug, you must use a loom that has been developed explicitly for this purpose. The density of the knots and the size of the rug determine how it is manufactured. Depending on how many knots are required and the size of the loom, this can alter the pricing.

The warp (vertical threads) and weft (horizontal threads) are connected to the loom and then intertwined for a rug. The weaver cuts the thread and ties the knots by hand to attach them to the warp threads. This is what makes up the rug’s “pile.”

This is a time-consuming and unpleasant task. A skilled weaver can weave 6 knots per minute on a conventional rug, up to 1000 knots per square inch.


Two main hand-knotting techniques are used; the Persian knot and the Turkish knot. The Persian knot is asymmetrical and leaves a gap, whereas the Turkish knot is symmetrical. The method used is usually dependent on where the rug’s origin is. Potentially even the patterns as Persian knots are better at intricate designs.

These types of rugs are carefully created as a hugely resilient product through this time-consuming operation. They can be repaired and cleaned without wearing out. Hand-knotted rugs can last up to 20 years due to the care and craftsmanship of weaving them by hand. They can withstand high traffic areas.

Hand-knotted rugs are an investment of time from the weaver, resulting in a fabulous, high-quality end product that is truly one of a kind.

Hand Tufted

For both contemporary and traditional designs, hand tufting is the fastest method for producing a rug by hand. Many different fibres are utilized in making a hand-tufted rug, including wool, acrylic, viscose, jute, and polyester.

Tufted rugs are made by pulling a loop of yarn through the backing of the rug. A ‘tufting gun’ is used to loop the rug fibres, making the process much less labour-intensive and hence more cost-effective.

As a guide for the weaver, the canvas backing is printed with the overall pattern, known as a ‘cartoon.’ The ‘tufting gun’ can then be used to drive the loops through in an orderly pattern.

Adding more foundation backing is as simple as pulling the yarn through the backing and pulling it out the other side. Latex adhesive is used to secure a plastic or rubber grid known as a scrim as a first step. Finally, a protective backing is applied on top of everything else.

Following this step, the weaver shears the rug to cut the loops, resulting in the pile you see today.

However, hand-tufted carpets are less time consuming to make than hand-knotted rugs. Between 12 and 15 years, they tend to be less expensive and less durable, although they still hold up well.

Hand Hooked

In contrast to tufting, the loops in hand-hooked carpets are left intact. Gun-like instruments are used to speed up the weaving process, making it more efficient than hand knotting. Loops of yarn are left in place instead of being sheared, creating an embroidered effect.

Petite point hooking, which uses a very fine needle, is also an option. As a result, the rugs are more expensive because they take longer to create. A hand-hooked rug’s precision allows it to produce elaborate motifs and vibrant colours.

A hand-hooked rug can last anywhere from five to fifteen years, depending on where it is put. As a result, they’re best used in rooms that get less use, such as bedrooms. As a result, they will live longer in these environments because they are not extremely durable.


As the name implies, flatweave rugs have no pile and lay flat. Rugs have a specific weaving style because they are manufactured, resulting in entirely entangled yarns. Wool and synthetic fibres can both be used to make them, but flat-woven natural fibre rugs are the most common.

Rugs such as Dhurries and Kilims are always flatweave and tend to be identified by where they were made. Indian Dhurries and Turkish/Egyptian Kilims are the most well-known examples of these textiles.

Due to the thin and close weave of flatweave carpets can be created either by hand or by machine. In many cases, the weaving may be seen from both sides.

The warp strands are used to weave with the weft strands to create the flat-woven rug’s basis and pattern. The weft strands’ varying colour, size, and texture determine the rug’s texture and pattern.

Hand-tufted or knotted carpets are thicker and last longer than flatweave rugs. In addition, because they lack a pile, stains are more noticeable. They are, however, considerably less expensive than hand-woven rugs. Additionally, they can produce brilliant colours in the weave’s intensity.

Machine Made or Power Loomed

In Europe and the United States, this is by far the most common method of rug weaving. High-powered looms are used to weave machine-woven rugs. Wool and synthetic fibre such as polypropylene, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and art silk are commonly used to make these carpets.

In contrast to other processes, this relies almost entirely on machines rather than humans, requiring the least amount of time and effort.

Face and backing yarns (which form the foundation of the face fibre) are intertwined to create a finished woven product while making a rug by machine. There is no need for a supplementary backing with these sorts of rugs and their fabrication.

In general, machine-made rugs have a life expectancy of roughly 20 years or less. Machine-made carpets have many attributes as a handmade rug but at a fraction of the cost.


Another rug-making technique is flokati, exclusive to a single type of rug and a single manufacturing process. The Greek government requires a specific production method to use the name “Flokati” rug.

Completely wool, down to the back of the rug where yarns are pulled through, goes into the making of each rug. Spindles are used to turn the wool into yarn, which is then used to begin the weaving process.

For Flokati rugs, there are strict guidelines on how they must be created before they can be referred to as such. To achieve the characteristic soft fluff and pile rather than the conventional woollen feel, you must wash the yarn under pressurized water before weaving can commence. There are many ways to soften the yarn, including washing it under a waterfall in the Pindus highlands for 40 hours to remove dirt and shrink it.

As with the hand-tufted procedure, the lengthy loops of yarn are next sheared. Recent years have seen a rise in the popularity of rugs called “Flokati.” As of 1966, the Greek government has established requirements for an authentic Flokati to meet. An absolute minimum of 1800 grams of pure wool is required, along with the requirement that it be washed in high-pressure water.


It’s challenging to get your head around all the intricate processes that have evolved throughout weaving’s long history.

Rug weaving methods used in different parts of the world produce a wide range of rugs. Even the raw materials used to construct them can greatly impact the final product.

If you’d want a clearer picture of what every rug material signifies, visit our blog to learn more about choosing a rug for your living room or hallway. In our blogs, you will definitely get to decide which is the perfect rug for your flooring!

We hope you have found this information useful in learning about the more technical aspects of rugs and how they are put together. Let us know if there’s anything you’d like to learn more about in the comments section!